Teaching rational prescribing in undergraduate medical education: a systematic search and review

Budakoğlu I. İ., Coşkun Ö., Kıyak Y. S., Uluoğlu C.

European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol.79, no.3, pp.341-348, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 79 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00228-022-03448-2
  • Journal Name: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chimica, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.341-348
  • Keywords: Rational prescribing, Rational drug use, Teaching, Medical education
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Aim: This study aimed to reveal the current status of the literature on rational prescribing training in undergraduate medical education. Methods: This study followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. An online search using 50 keywords in four databases was performed to access the studies published between 2008 and 2020. Specific features of the training such as aims or objectives of teaching, methods or model, and evaluation of effectiveness were extracted. Kirkpatrick levels were used to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching. Results: Of 74 studies included in the full review, 16 (21.6%) of them reported the use of WHO 6-Step Model for Rational Prescribing in their educational interventions. In terms of effectiveness, only two of the studies investigated changes in learner behavior in the context for which they are being trained, and only one study showed the effect of training on patient outcomes. Conclusion: The evidence on the effectiveness of rational prescribing training has been presented mostly by using student satisfaction surveys and test of knowledge and skills. A higher level of evidence such as patient outcomes of the training needs to be reported.