Estimations of Stress Concentration Factors (Cw/Kts) For Helical Circular/Square Cross Sectional Tension-Compression Springs And Artificial Neural Network Modelling

ÖZKAN M. T. , TOKTAŞ İ., Doganay S. K.

JOURNAL OF POLYTECHNIC-POLITEKNIK DERGISI, cilt.23, sa.3, ss.901-908, 2020 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 23 Konu: 3
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.901-908


Springs are used for various purposes in machine design as they can store energy under load, due to their elastic deformation characteristics. There are many types and profiles of springs. For a round wire helical compression or tension spring of small pitch angle, the Wahl factor, a correction factor (Cw) taking into account curvature and direct shear stress, is generally used in the design. The corresponding stress concentration factors, which may be useful for mechanics of materials problems, are obtained by taking the nominal shear stress tau(nom) as the sum of the torsional stress (tau) and the direct shear stress (tau) for round wire. In the case of the wire of square cross-section, tau(nom) is the sum of the torsional stress and the direct shear stress. For design calculations it is recommended that the simpler Wahl factor be used. The same value of max will be obtained whether one uses Cw or Kts. This study contains the determination of stress concentration factor and Wahl factor. For this aim, stress concentration factor charts were converted numerical values for round and square wires. These values were collected in an excel file. ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) model was developed using the data. It is an easy and convenient method, ANN model, was presented for the determination of stress concentration and Wahl factor for spring design.