The structural, electronic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Curium Monopnictides CmX (X = N, P, As, Sb and Bi) are investigated using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) and full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method under ambient condition and high pressure. The exchange-correlation term is treated using two approximations spin-polarized local density approximation (LSDA) and spin-polarized generalized gradient approximation generalized (GGA). The structural parameters such as the equilibrium lattice parameters, bulk modulus and the total energies are calculated in two phases: namely NaCl (B1) and CsCl (B2). The obtained results are compared with the previous theoretical and experimental results. A structural phase transition from B1 phase to B2 phase for Curium pnictides has been obtained. The highest transition pressure is 122 GPa for CmN and the lowest one is 10.0 GPa for CmBi compound. The electronic properties show that these materials exhibit half-metallic behavior in both phases. The magnetic moment is found to be around 7.0 mu B. The mechanical properties of CmX (X = N, P, As, Sb and Bi) are predicted from the calculated elastic constants. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the theoretical results in literature. The effect of pressure and temperature on the thermodynamic properties like the cell volume, bulk modulus and the specific heats C-v and C-p, the entropy S and the Cruneisen parameter gamma have been foreseen at expanded pressure and temperature ranges.