Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disease, caused by the complete or relative absence of insulin hormone, which results in the deterioration of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism. The PON1 55 and 192 polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes and its complications. In this study, the involvement of the PON1 55 and 192 polymorphisms and paraoxonase enzyme activity in diabetic complications was assessed. The MM and QQ genotypes were the most frequent in complications of type 2 diabetes in both of the polymorphisms. PON enzyme activity was lower in the type 2 diabetes group with respect to the control group. Regarding both genotypes and enzyme activity, correlations were found between the PON1 55 and 192 genotypes and diabetic complications. This study thus helps to outline a genotype-phenotype relation for the PON1 gene in a Turkish population.