Purpose This study aims to elucidate the relationship between nutritional status and various biochemical parameters and migraine symptoms. Design/methodology/approach The disability of individuals aged 19-64 years old with episodic migraine (n = 80, female n = 64, male n = 16) was assessed with the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, and migraine severity was evaluated with the visual analog scale. The metabolic risks of individuals were determined by analyzing body composition, various biochemical parameters and anthropometric measurements. Nutrients and energy intake levels were measured using the food consumption recording form. Findings Body muscle mass percentage was correlated directly with migraine severity and inversely with the attack duration (r = 0.26, p = 0.01 and r = -0.29, p = 0.007, respectively). High bone mass was associated with low attack frequency (r = -0.23, p = 0.03), while high body fat percentage was associated with long attack duration (r = 0.28, p = 0.009). A significant direct correlation was found between total cholesterol level and migraine severity and attack duration (r = 0.25, p = 0.02) and between triglyceride level and attack duration (r = 0.26, p = 0.01). There was a direct correlation between serum thyroxine (T4) level and migraine attack severity (r = 0.23, p = 0.03). There was a significant direct correlation between energy and carbohydrate intake and migraine severity (r = 0.26, p = 0.02 and r = 0.30, p = 0.009, respectively), protein and vitamin B2 intake and attack frequency (r = 0.24, p = 0.03 and r = 0.23, p = 0.04, respectively) and an inverse correlation between monounsaturated fatty acid, fiber and vitamin C intake and migraine severity score (r = -0.35, p = 0.002; r = -0.25, p = 0.02; and r = -0.41, p = 0.001, respectively). Originality/value The findings confirm that nutritional status, body composition and some biochemical parameters can affect the course of migraine.