The main purpose of medicine is to protect humans from diseases and its complications. Patients may be at risk in the course of diseases or during medical and surgical treatments, which can have undesirable consequences, including death. These risks, which are accepted by all medical authorities and medical literature, are called "complications." One of the responsibilities of the physicians is to detect complications on time and to manage them in accordance with the current medical standards. In the last two decades, allegations that any medical practice is "faulty" have been increasing, and these allegations are presented to the press and media regardless of whether they are justified. This situation adversely affects the medical practice, leading to defensive medical practices, affecting the public health. In this article, we presented our medical responsibilities over a neurosurgical scenario and mentioned the legal procedures to be experienced in such a situation. As physicians, we must know all the legal responsibilities of our profession and record all stages of treatments applied, to suffer the least damage from these claims and legal processes that cause pecuniary and non-pecuniary injury.