In the paper, Ag2O-PVA nanocomposites have been prepared by ultrasound-assisted method and the effect of gamma and neutron irradiation has been studied on their optical and structural properties. X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetric analyses also confirm the formation of silver oxide nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol polymer. The optical changes in the samples induced by gamma and neutron irradiation were revealed through Fourier transform infrared and diffusive reflectance spectroscopy. Surface morphology of the as-prepared, irradiated and nonirradiated samples has been studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results confirm the observed changes in both optical and structural properties.