The taxonomy of the type section of the genus Seseli is revised based on newly obtained molecular data. The type species of the genus, Seseli tortuosum, is shown to be a polyphyletic taxon and is split into two species: the western Mediterranean S. tortuosum and the eastern Mediterranean S. arenarium. The Turkish endemics S. hartvigii, S. serpentinum and S. andronakii, and the Transcaucasian S. grandivittatum form a complex of closely related species together with S. arenarium. The results of the molecular analysis confirm the specific rank of S. corymbosum, S. phrygium and S. paphlagonicum and the status of S. gummiferum as distinct from either of these three. The latter species is strictly endemic to Crimea and does not occur in Turkey.