Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Exercise training, which is incorporated both goalbased training such as task-oriented training (TOT) and aerobic training (AT), has been suggested to induce neuroprotection. However, molecular mechanisms which may underlie exercise-induced neuroprotection are still largely unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of TOT combined with AT (TOT-AT) on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived growth factor (GDNF), insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) levels in people with PD (PwPD). Methods: Forty PwPD were randomized into 8-week of either exercise group (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The exercise group received TOT-AT while the control group received only AT. Serum BDNF, GDNF, IGF-1, VEGF, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta levels determined with ELISA were assessed at baseline and after training. Results: A total of 29 PwPD completed this study. Our results showed no significant change in the serum BDNF, GDNF, IGF-1, VEGF, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta levels in both groups. After the intervention period, no significant difference was observed between the groups regarding the serum BDNF, GDNF, IGF-1, VEGF, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta levels. Conclusion: TOT-AT could not be an effective exercise method for changing serum concentrations of BDNF, GDNF, IGF-1, VEGF, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta in the rehabilitation of PD.