Objective: Metastasized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is usually sensitive to a range of ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ALK-positive NSCLC have been identified in pivotal phase III trials with fluorescence in situ hybridization (ALK FISH +). These tumors are also expressing the fusion product (ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) +). However, discrepant cases occur, including ALK IHC + FISH-. The aim of this study was to collect ALK IHC + cases and compare within this group response to crizotinib treatment of ALK FISH + cases with ALK FISH- cases.