The goal of the present clinical study was to evaluate new bone formation in human extraction sockets augmented with enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and Bio-Oss Collagen. Patients with symmetrical single-rooted teeth in the bilateral quadrants of the upper jaw condemned for extraction participated in this study. Following extraction, the sockets (20 sockets) were randomly augmented using either EMD or Bio-Oss Collagen. After 3 months of healing, bone biopsies were obtained and prepared for histological analyses. Dental implants were then placed. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) readings were obtained for each implant at the time of surgery and at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. The mean new bone formation was 34.57 ± 25.67% in the EMD sites and 28.80 ± 16.14% in the Bio-Oss Collagen sites. There was no significant difference between the groups. The ISQ values were significantly higher for the implants placed in the EMD sites at the first and third months, but no significant differences were observed in the ISQ values for the implants placed in the Bio-Oss Collagen sites. The augmentation of the extraction sockets with EMD or Bio-Oss Collagen leads to similar behaviour in bone regeneration. © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.