Anxiety scale for distance education: development and validation

Ramazanoğlu M., Çetin A., ULUYOL Ç.

Behaviour and Information Technology, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/0144929x.2023.2237607
  • Journal Name: Behaviour and Information Technology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, FRANCIS, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, CINAHL, Communication & Mass Media Index, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Educational research abstracts (ERA), INSPEC, Library and Information Science Abstracts, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA), Metadex, Psycinfo, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: anxiety, Distance education, privacy concern, readiness for the profession anxiety, social anxiety
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


As individuals are likely to feel anxious in case of obscurities in distance education environments, it seems necessary to develop a data collection tool for anxiety in such environments. In this study, a scale was developed to reveal the anxiety levels of university students in distance education. Quantitative research method was used in the study. The study group consisted of 935 students in the first sample for exploratory factor analysis and 418 students in the second sample for confirmatory factor analysis including those who previously experienced distance education. After the validity and reliability were ensured in the study, the final version of the anxiety scale for distance education (ASDE) consisted of a total of 17 items and three dimensions. These dimensions were listed as readiness for the profession anxiety, social anxiety and privacy concern. Furthermore, to establish the concurrent validity, the Online Privacy Concern Scale and Anxiety subscale of Brief Symptom İnventory are administered to 219 and 197 students in the third and fourth samples as a criterion scale. The results of the analysis show that the ASDE is a reliable and valid measurement tool in determining the anxiety levels of university students in distance education.