The purpose of this retrospective investigation was to compare cephalometrically the treatment effects of chincap and maxillary protraction appliances in subjects with a Class III skeletal malocclusion with a combination of an underdeveloped maxilla and prominent mandible. Twenty-four patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment type; the chincap group (mean age 11.03 years, n = 12) and the Delaire type maxillary protraction appliance group (mean age 10.72 years, n = 12). In both groups, a significant increase in ANB, molar relationship, and overjet showed the effect of the appliances in the treatment of Class III malocclusions. In comparing the two groups, the maxilla was displaced more anteriorly and the molar relationship correction was greater in the maxillary protraction appliance group (P < 0.05). Angular and dimensional parameters for lower incisor/NB and nasolabial angle showed significant differences between the groups (P < 0.05).