The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in Turkey among children between the ages of 0 and 16 years. The study population consisted of 24,773,569 children living in Turkey. Because the prevalence of childhood epilepsy is reported to be 0.001 to 1% in the literature, the sample size was determined as 48,260, with 0.05 error type I and 0.10 error type 2 (power 0.90), and the effect size was 2. With the cluster sampling method, samples were selected from cities, towns, districts, and villages, and 46,813 (97%) children were reached. The study questionnaire contained sections with individual informational questions and questions for the selection of suspected epilepsy cases and physical examination results. The epilepsy classification was designed according to the classification of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The prevalence of epilepsy was determined as 0.8%; 55.2% of the subjects with epilepsy were grouped as generalized, 39% as partial, and 5.8% as unidentified. Age, place of residence, route of delivery, place of delivery, and social and economic status had no statistically significant effect on the development of epilepsy. Male gender, preterm, and post-term delivery increased the risk of developing epilepsy. Early diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, as well as the education of health workers and families, are very important.