Do barriers to export vary for born globals and across stages of internationalization? An empirical inquiry in the emerging market of Turkey

Uner M. M., Kocak A., Cavusgil E., Cavusgil S. T.

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS REVIEW, vol.22, no.5, pp.800-813, 2013 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2012.12.005
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.800-813
  • Keywords: Born global firms, Barriers to internationalization, Emerging market, FIRMS, BEHAVIOR, CAPABILITIES, PERFORMANCE, INSIGHTS
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Although the literature on export barriers has been growing, this issue of whether barriers to export exhibit significant differences among firms has not been addressed. In particular, the question of whether these impediments are uniform for born globals - a new breed of exporting firms that initiate exporting soon after inception - is unresolved. Similarly, barriers to export are thought to vary across different stages of internationalization. Therefore, the present work explores this fundamental issue. The empirical study is carried out in the context of an emerging market, Turkey, providing an opportunity for examining the stability of earlier findings (carried out largely in advanced economy settings) for rapidly developing economies. Results suggest that perceived barriers differ mainly for firms in the domestic marketing stage, pre-export stage and for born global firms. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.