Additive manufacturing design approach to strut-based functionally graded porous structures for personalized implants

Tüzemen M. Ç., Salamcı E., Ünal R.

JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES, vol.84, pp.1526-1540, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 84
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jmapro.2022.10.045
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.1526-1540
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


This study aims to create mathematical models (MMs) and maps that will facilitate personalized implant design and provide the selection of design parameters that give desired mechanical and physical properties. For this purpose, strut-based functionally graded porous structures (FGPSs) were designed using three different unit cell structures, unit cell sizes, and strut thicknesses. A total of nine specimens were produced by L-PBF using Ti-6Al-4V. The porosities were measured by dry weighing and Archimedes methods. In addition, three MMs were derived that give the effective porosity of the specimens based on the unit cell structures. A relationship was established between the modulus of elasticity obtained from the compression test and the design parameters. MMs that give the elastic modulus and porosity of FGPSs depending on unit cell size and strut thickness have been derived. By using these models, maps giving the mechanical and physical properties of the functionally graded porous structures were generated. Thanks to these models and maps, personalized implant design will be facilitated, and biocompatibility will be increased. Thus, undesired problems such as early revision and repetitive surgeries will be minimized and the quality of life of the patients will be increased.