An Analysis of Citizenship and Democracy Education Text Book in the Context of Gender Equality and Determining Students' Perceptions on Gender Equality

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KURAM VE UYGULAMADA EGITIM BILIMLERI, vol.14, no.3, pp.1065-1074, 2014 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.12738/estp.2014.3.1813
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.1065-1074
  • Keywords: Citizenship and Democracy Education, Gender Equality, Gender Inequality, Gender Roles, Hidden Curriculum, Text Book, WOMEN
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Gender equality has been explained as both the equal treatment of women and men before the law and women's and men's equal usage of resources, opportunities, and services within the family and society. Today, although the conditions that support gender inequality have relatively decreased, gender discrimination still persists. Gender equality is expected to be taught by means of education at all levels and through curricula since they are the most important and indispensable elements of education. The first aim of this study is to determine whether an activity in the unit titled Towards Equality within the textbook, Citizenship and Democracy Education used in Turkey is appropriate for use in teaching gender equality. The second aim of the study is to determine through this activity students' views on gender equality/inequality and the reasons behind them based on the gender of students and the socio-economic levels of the schools which they attend. This is a descriptive study using both qualitative and quantitative research models. The study group consisted of a total of 160 students in 8th grade from four primary education schools from the lower, middle, and upper socio-economic levels (SEL) (three public schools, and one private school) in inner-city Ankara, Turkey. While descriptive statistical techniques (f-%) were used to analyze the quantitative data, content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. According to the findings of the study, the activity selected for testing by the researchers was found not to be adequate in strengthening gender equality awareness. Students generally attributed daily household chores and certain characteristics in the activity, which included such tasks as setting the table, being emotional, being a nurse, playing volleyball, and having blonde hair, to women. On the other hand, being a judge, playing football, and bravery were expressed as characteristics more likely to be specific to men. The ratios of these types of gender inequality based views were found to be higher particularly at the lower socio-economic level. The fact that gender inequality still continues in curriculum, course materials, and in the minds and behaviors of students makes it difficult to change this situation into a positive one. The content found in the curriculum and printed materials that are in connection with the curriculum should be cleared from implicit and explicit discourse that create or support gender inequality. Awareness of teachers about the variables that cause gender inequality should be increased.