In recent years, electrospun fibers have found wide use, especially in pharmaceutical area and biomedical applications, related to the various advantages such as high surface-volume ratio, high solubility and having wide usage areas they have provided. Biocompatible and biodegradable fibers can be obtained by using peptideprotein structures of plant and animal derived along with synthetic polymers. Plant-derived proteins used in nanofiber production can be listed as, zein, soy protein, and gluten and animal derived proteins can be listed as casein, silk fibroin, hemoglobine, bovine serum albumin, elastin, collagen, gelatin, and keratin. Plant and animal proteins and synthetic peptides used in electrospun fiber production were reviewed in detail. In addition, the important physical properties of these materials for the electrospinning process and their use in pharmaceutical and biomedical areas were discussed. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.