Purpose The obsession with healthy eating associated with restrictive behaviors is called Orthorexia Nervosa (OrNe). Nevertheless, some studies suggest that orthorexia can also be a non-pathological interest in healthy eating which is called Healthy Orthorexia (HeOr). First, one of the main objectives of this study is to compare HeOr, OrNe and eating behaviors in different dietary patterns (vegan, vegetarian and omnivore). Second is to reveal the relationship between HeOr, OrNe and eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating). Lastly, to determine the potential predictors of HeOr and OrNe. Methods Participants (N = 426 with an omnivorous diet; N = 415 with a vegan diet, N = 324 with a vegetarian diet) completed a web-based descriptive survey, the Teruel Orthorexia Scale and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R 21. Results HeOr and OrNe were more common in individuals following both vegan and vegetarian diets. Individuals following a vegan or a vegetarian diet had lower body mass index and higher body image satisfaction than individuals following an omnivorous diet. Cognitive restraint and following a vegan or a vegetarian diet were the two main predictors of both HeOr and OrNe. Cognitive restraint was positively associated with both HeOr and OrNe (more strongly correlated with OrNe), whereas uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors were positively related to OrNe and negatively related to HeOr. Conclusion The present study contributes to a better understanding of the some similarities and differences between HeOr and OrNe. It also points to higher rates of orthorexia in individuals following a vegan or vegetarian diet and represents a further step towards developing prevention and intervention programs by identifying risk factors for OrNe. Level V Cross-sectional descriptive study.