Conducting the carburizing process on the surface layer of low-carbon steel and subsequent austempering heat treatment can be implemented to obtain nanobainite microstructure on the surface of steels. In this research, steel with 0.23 wt.% carbon was carburized for 3 h at 900 degrees C in a liquid salt bath containing sodium cyanide, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride and immediately quenched to room temperature. The samples were then heated to 900 degrees C for 30 min and isothermally transformed at three different temperatures of 200, 250 and 300 degrees C for 72, 24 and 12 h, respectively. It was found that nanostructured bainite was formed on the surface layer and the subunits of bainitic ferrite and high-carbon austenite films were almost 60-300 nm thick depending on the heat treatment temperature. It was also found that the samples austempered at these temperatures contained 18, 21 and 28% volume fractions of retained austenite on the surfaces, respectively. Due to the comparable microstructural characteristics, similar friction coefficients were obtained as for ordinary nanostructured bulk bainitic steels with high-carbon content.