A novel biocomposite material was developed by immobilizing an ammonia-oxidizing bacterial strain, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus STB1, on an electrospun porous cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous web. Ammonium removal characteristics of the STB1 immobilized CA nanofibrous web were determined at varying initial ammonium concentrations, and removal rates of 100%, 98.5% and 72% were observed within 48 h for 50 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1 and 200 mg L-1 samples, respectively. Most of the ammonia is inferred to be converted into nitrogen or is accumulated as bacterial biomass, as only trace amounts of ammonium were converted into nitrite or nitrate. Reusability test results indicate that, at an initial ammonium concentration of 100 mg L-1, bacteria-immobilized CA nanofibrous webs can be reused for at least 5 cycles. SEM images of the STB1/CA nanofibrous web after five cycles of reuse and rigorous washing demonstrate that bacterial biofilms strongly adhere to nanofiber surfaces.