Research literacy is essential for teachers to practice their profession based on research-based knowledge. The present study aimed to develop and validate the Research Literacy Scale (RLS) and investigate teachers’ research literacy based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and research utilization models. The data was collected from teachers working in primary and secondary schools for two separate studies. According to the exploratory factor analysis results, a 20-item, four-factor solution emerged: research awareness, attitude toward research, research skills, and research use. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the four-factor model fit the data well, and all items are significant under the relevant factors. The sub-factors of the RLS demonstrated high internal consistency. Measurement invariance tests revealed showed full configural, metric, scalar, and strict invariance across gender. Teachers doing research had significantly higher scores on all four dimensions, and those who followed scientific journals had higher scores on the three dimensions except for attitude. As a conclusion RLS has good psychometric features to measure teachers’ research literacy, and variables related to research experience cause a significant difference in research literacy.