Tissue effects of intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: comparison of pneumatic and ultrasonic lithotripters on rat bladder

Diri A., Resorlu B., Astarci M., Unsal A. , Germiyonoglu C.

UROLOGICAL RESEARCH, cilt.40, sa.4, ss.409-413, 2012 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 40 Konu: 4
  • Basım Tarihi: 2012
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s00240-011-0439-x
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.409-413


The objectives of this study were to determine the tissue effects of ultrasonic and pneumatic lithotripsy on the rat urothelium. The rats were divided into three groups. Groups I and II consisted of ten rats each that underwent intracorporeal lithotripsy (pneumatic and ultrasonic lithotripsy, respectively). Group III contained ten control rats and no lithotripsy method was used, they served as references for absence of injury. The light microscopy findings were evaluated as follows: squamous metaplasia, papillary projection, inflammation, increased stratification, and stone formation. In five (71.4%) animals of group II, bladders were edematous and hemorrhagic, macroscopically. Histologically, the bladder wall was normal in four rats of group I and in one of group II. There was a significant increase in inflammation (31.5%), squamous metaplasia (85.7%), papillary projection (71.4%), increased stratification (71.4%), and microscopic or macroscopic stone formation (85.7%) in the bladder wall of group II rats in comparison with group I and control group. In the rat model, we noted that ultrasonic devices have a potential risk for tissue injury. In turn, this was associated with a markedly increased deposition of CaOx stones in the kidney. When confronted with harder stones, pneumatic lithotripsy can be more effective while also minimizing tissue injury.