Purpose: Mood disorders are present in more than 90% of suicides, and a genetic vulnerability to suicidality is well established. Numerous lines of evidence relate the transcription factor Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Response Element Binding protein (CREB1) to suicide, and to the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Our aim was to test for association between CREB1 single nucleotide polynnorphisms (SNPs) and both suicide risk (SR) and a personal history of suicide attempt (SA) in MDD patients. Materials and Methods: A sample of 250 MDD patients collected in the context of a European multicenter resistant depression study and treated with antidepressants over a period of at least 4 weeks were genotyped for five CREB1 SNPs (rs2709376, rs2253206, rs7569963, rs7594560, and rs4675690). To assess suicidality, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) were applied. Results: Neither single-marker nor haplotypic association were found between SR and/or a personal history of SA with any of the investigated SNPs after multiple testing correction. For females, an association between rs2709376 and a personal history of SA was found (p = 0.016), however not resisting multiple testing correction. Conclusions: Although we found significant CREB1 single marker association with a personal history of SA in female MDD patients, this finding could not be confirmed in haplotypic analyses after multiple testing correction. Larger well-defined cohorts are required to confirm or refute a possible association of CREB1 and SA in female MDD patients.