Targeting Multiple Signal Transduction Pathways of SARS-CoV-2: Approaches to COVID-19 Therapeutic Candidates

Fakhri S., Nouri Z., Moradi S. Z., AKKOL E., Piri S., Sobarzo-Sanchez E., ...More

MOLECULES, vol.26, no.10, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 26 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/molecules26102917
  • Journal Name: MOLECULES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, signaling pathway, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, natural products, RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS, CONVERTING-ENZYME, ACE2 EXPRESSION, CYTOKINE STORM, HEPATITIS-B, SARS-COV, RECEPTOR, INFECTIONS, AUTOPHAGY, PROTEIN
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Due to the complicated pathogenic pathways of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), related medicinal therapies have remained a clinical challenge. COVID-19 highlights the urgent need to develop mechanistic pathogenic pathways and effective agents for preventing/treating future epidemics. As a result, the destructive pathways of COVID-19 are in the line with clinical symptoms induced by severe acute coronary syndrome (SARS), including lung failure and pneumonia. Accordingly, revealing the exact signaling pathways, including inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy, as well as relative representative mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Bax/caspases, and Beclin/LC3, respectively, will pave the road for combating COVID-19. Prevailing host factors and multiple steps of SARS-CoV-2 attachment/entry, replication, and assembly/release would be hopeful strategies against COVID-19. This is a comprehensive review of the destructive signaling pathways and host-pathogen interaction of SARS-CoV-2, as well as related therapeutic targets and treatment strategies, including potential natural products-based candidates.