Genomic instability in colorectal cancer (CRC) occurs as either microsatellite instability (MSI) or chromosomal instability. The present study was aimed at examining the MSI for the MLH1 and MSH2 genes in normal colon and polyps, if detected. Four segments of the colon were sampled in 102 subjects during colonoscopy. DNA samples were analyzed for the MSI status according to the Bethesda consensus panel. Family history of any type of cancer or for colon cancer was present in 44.8% and 9.4% of the individuals, respectively. Forty-eight percent of individuals were microsatellite stable for all five markers at all locations, 20% had low MSI status (MSI-L), and 32% had high MSI status (MSI-H). The frequencies of MSI markers differed significantly from each other (p = 0.003). The most frequent positive marker was D17S250. This is the first study which revealed that MSI is present in endoscopically normal-looking colon of normal individuals and, more frequently, in individuals with family histories of CRC. The detection of very early-stage CRC is possible by MSI analysis of DNA mismatch repair genes in colon tissues. This study has revealed crucial information for the use of molecular tests in CRC screening, such as high frequencies of MSI in endoscopically normal colon, which might cause false positivity.