It is possible to discuss our history of modernization in the Republican era until 1980 in three periods: 1923-1938, 1938-1960 and 1960-1980. The most significant changes that affected the socio-cultural structure took place between 1923 and 1938, when Ataturk was the most potent figure as "The Only Man." Except for the last decade of the second period, the Republican People's Party was in power. In 1946, there was a transition to the multi-party political system but the system was blocked as the necessary legislative and institutional changes for such a system had not been implemented. The period in our Republican modernization which started with the military coup in 1960 and ended with the military coup in 1980 and when there were deadly clashes between the left-wing and the right-wing was characterized by a rapid rural migration, improper urbanization, a fast disintegration of traditional structures and the emergence of a cultural lag. In this period, all the ideologies that were powerful around the world had their followers in Turkey with all possible varieties. In this article, the movements of thought between 1960 and 1980 are analyzed based on the distinction between absolute modernists, those favoring controlled modernization and those against it, which was made by Erol Gungor, who lived during the period in question (1938-1983) and had the opportunity to have an insider's look at the socio-cultural structure with his rich academic background. In this article, which is a literature review, it is concluded that despite varieties in movements of thought, the positivist paradigm, which was the mainstream paradigm in the political culture of the second period, had a lasting effect until the end of the third period.