High surface area MCM-41 (1452 m(2)/g) and V-MCM-41 materials were synthesized by a direct hydrothermal synthesis method. Characteristic XRD patterns, SEM and AFM photographs indicated no significant change in the morphology of MCM-41 by incorporation of vanadium. XPS and EDS results proved that incorporation of vanadium into the MCM-41 structure was successfully achieved when vanadyl sulfate hydrate was used as the vanadium source. However, use of ammonium vanadate as the vanadium source was not equally successful. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.