Several genes encoding different cytokines may play crucial roles in host susceptibility to lung cancer, since cytokine production capacity varies among individuals and depends on cytokine gene polymorphisms. The association between cytokine gene polymorphisms with primary lung carcinoma was investigated. DNA samples were obtained from a Turkish population of 44 patients with primary lung cancer, and 59 healthy control subjects. All genotyping (IFN-gamma, TGF-beta 1, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10) experiments were performed using sequence-specific primers (SSP)-PCR. When compared to the healthy controls, the frequencies of high/intermediate producing genotypes of IL-10 and low producing genotype of TNF-a were significantly more common in the patient group. It is noteworthy that lung cancer patients with the TGF-beta T/T genotype in codon 10 had statistically longer survival compared to those having the C/C genotype (Kaplan-Meier survival function test, log rank significance = 0.014). These results suggest that IL-10, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta 1 gene polymorphisms may affect host susceptibility to lung cancer and the outcome of the patients. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.