Anemia is a disease commonly seen in the elderly. This disease increases the morbidity and mortality, while it causes a decrease in quality of life. Commonly encountered anemia in the elderly should not be considered as a physiological consequence of aging. Therefore, underlying cause or causes should be investigated in the presence of anemia in the elderly. Iron deficiency anemia and secondary anemia induced by other diseases are the most common types of anemia encountered in elderly patients. Although the treatment of anemia varies depending on the cause; erythropoietin therapy and diet, iron and/or vitamin supplement (B12 vitamin, folate etc.) are commonly used for the treatment. The awareness of health care professionals regarding that there is a high risk for anemia in the elderly and early detection of anemia are important in terms of planning treatment and care initiatives. According to the studies conducted, the life quality of the patients can be increased by performing an effective treatment with proper detection and examination as well as receiving the history of elderly patients. Nurses, who are important members of the health team, have important roles in the prevention of anemia, diagnosis, providing effective care and treatment in the elderly patients. They can fulfill their roles by patient monitoring and educating these patients and their parents. In this study, the incidence of anemia in elderly patients, its causes and effects on the elderly as well as treatment practices will be discussed.