The concept of melatonin has become more important recently both in plants and in human who utilize plants for nutritional and health purposes. Melatonin, synthesized from L-tryptophan by enzyms, protects plants against difficult conditions. People have consumed these plants for their antioxidant, immunomodulator, antiinflammatory and anticancer effects. In parts of edible and non-edible plants, levels of melatonin are determined by cyclodextrin- modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay, radioimmunoassay, highperformance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry. In this review, biosynthesis of melatonin in both animal and plants, function of melatonin in plant kingdom, especially in medicinal/edible and nonedible plants, and detection of phytomelatonin content in those plants are presented.