To examine the relationship between one-leg standing balance (OLSB) and different modalities of foot sole sensation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Forty patients diagnosed with T2DM (mean age, 53.96 +/- 15.31 years) and ten healthy control subjects were included. Duration of OLSB was measured with digital chronometer. Threshold of light-touch pressure (LTP), evaluated with full Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament Test Kit, and distance of two-point discrimination (TPD), evaluated with aesthesiometer, were assessed at six different regions of the foot sole. Thresholds of the LTP at all regions were significantly correlated with duration of OLSB (p<0.05). However, there was no relationship between TPD sensation and duration of OLSB (p>0.05). LTP at the plantar side of the great toe was the most related area with the OLSB (r=-0.48, p<0.05). In patients with T2DM, LTP, and TPD sensations of foot sole and duration of OLSB were decreased compared to healthy controls. In this study, there was a moderate correlation between LTP sensation and balance. Other factors that would affect the balance in patients with T2DM should be investigated.