Immunological Mechanisms of Allergic Rhinitis

Koycu A., Yucel A. A.

GAZI MEDICAL JOURNAL, vol.32, pp.337-340, 2021 (Journal Indexed in ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 32
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.12996/gmj.2021.78
  • Title of Journal : GAZI MEDICAL JOURNAL
  • Page Numbers: pp.337-340


Allergic rhinitis is a specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated reaction developed against respiratory allergens. The main symptoms of allergic rhinitis; sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion, itching in the nose, eyes and palate. Cells, cytokines, surface markers, transcription factors and other mediators have been revealed with the sequential removal of nasal biopsy and lavages in human and animal models exposed to allergens over the years. Respiratory allergen induces Th2 lymphocyte proliferation with a combination of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13. These molecules promote allergen specific IgE, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, adhesion molecules and chemokines. In this review, immunological mechanisms in allergic rhinitis re-examined by reviewing the current literature.