There are many parameters that determine the product quality in metal cutting operations. Surface roughness is the leading parameter. Surface roughness effects the work piece properties such as tribological, sealing, hydrodynamic, electrical conduction and thermal conduction. In order to obtain the ideal roughness values, the cutting parameters must be determined accurately. In this study, the experiments were performed with three different cutting speeds, three different cutting depths, three different feed rates by using AISI 1050 steel. As a result of the experiments, most effective cutting parameters were determined for surface roughness. The relation between cutting parameters and surface roughness was stated with mathematical models and equations. The effects of cutting parameters on chip formation were investigated and how different cutting parameters change chip formation was explained.