The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic role of pre- and/or early post-autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) F-18-flourodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Forty-three consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. FDG-PET/CT was performed following salvage chemotherapy within 6 weeks of undergoing ASCT and at the first month after ASCT. FDG-PET positivity was found in 26 patients before ASCT and in 13 patients after ASCT. The patients who had negative PET scan before or after ASCT had significantly better outcomes in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Pre- and post-ASCT FDG-PET positivity was found to be independently associated with PFS while post-ASCT FDG-PET was an independent factor with an impact on OS inmultivariate analysis. F-18-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in predicting prognosis after ASCT. Furthermore, effective treatment options including allogeneic stem cell transplantation might be considered in patients with positive FDG-PET scan after salvage chemotherapy and ASCT.