Purpose: To evaluate long term effects of perfluorophenanthrene (C12F24), a perfluorocarbon fluid, in the anterior chamber of the human eye, where residual perfluorophenanthrene was retained in the eye postoperatively. Methods: Slit-lamp microscopic and specular microscopic examinations of 4 eyes of 4 patients were performed. All the eyes were operated for complicated retinal detachment and they were aphakic at the end of the operations . Mean follow-up period was 10 months (6-16 months). Results: Perfluorophenanthrene was seen in the anterior chamber in the first or second day postoperatively as a single drop. In the third week, postoperatively, the first signs of splitting the perfluorophenanthrene (fish egging phenomena) was observed. There was no sign of corneal or anterior segment toxicity with the slit lamp microscopic examinations and the intraocular pressure was within normal limits during the follow-up period in all eyes. However, some structural changes of the corneal endothelium were shown by specular microscopy. Decreased endothelial cell density, a reversed illumination pattern in which the normally dark cellular boundaries appear bright and intracytoplasmic light reflecting bodies were signs of cellular damage at the contact sites whereas no significant changes were seen at non contact sites. Conclusion: Residual perfluorophenanthrene in the anterior chamber does not induce gross corneal damage or ocular inflammation, although structural changes indicating the damage of the corneal endothelium, can be shown by specular microscopy at the contact sites. Corneal endothelial changes seem to arise from a contact-dependent effect of the perfluorophenanthrene.