The effect of three different methods on venipuncture pain and anxiety in children: Distraction cards, virtual reality, and Buzzy® (randomized controlled trial)


ERDOĞAN B. , Aytekin Ozdemir A.

Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.pedn.2021.01.001
  • Title of Journal : Journal of Pediatric Nursing

Abstract

© 2021 Elsevier Inc.Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the distraction cards, virtual reality and Buzzy® methods on venipuncture pain and anxiety in children aged 7–12 years. Design and methods: This was a randomized controlled trial with parallel groups conducted between November 16, 2017 and August 14, 2018 at the pediatric venipuncture unit of a university hospital in Western Turkey. The sample consisted of 142 children who met the inclusion criteria. The experimental group consisted of 108 children divided into three groups: Distraction Cards (DC; n = 35), Virtual Reality (VR; n = 37), and Buzzy® (n = 36). The control group (n = 34) received no intervention during venipuncture. Data were collected using a descriptive characteristics form, and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Wong-Baker FACES, and Children's Fear Scale (CFS). The participants themselves and their parents and the researcher scored venipuncture pain and anxiety levels. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee. Permission was obtained from related institutions. Informed consent was obtained from parents. Verbal consent was obtained from children prior to participation. Results: Buzzy® group had the lowest mean VAS score (2.2 ± 2.0), followed by the VR (2.7 ± 2.8), DC (3.4 ± 2.4), and control (5.2 ± 2.8) groups (p < 0.05). According to all raters (child, parent, and researcher), the Buzzy® group had the lowest mean Wong Baker FACES score, followed by the VR, DC, and control groups (p < 0.05). According to all raters, the Buzzy® group had the lowest mean CFS score, followed by the VR, DC, and control groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The DC, VR, and Buzzy® methods were effective in reducing venipuncture pain and anxiety in children. Practice implications: Nurses can use the DC, VR, and Buzzy® methods to help reduce venipuncture pain and anxiety in children. The clinical trial registration number is NCT04421430. (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT04421430).