Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a noninvasive method assessing atherosclerosis. Objective It was aimed to determine relationship and survival between COPD and CIMT. Methods CIMT was measured using Doppler ultrasound (USG) in 668 stable COPD patients at 24 centers. Patients were followed-up for 2 years. Results There were 610 patients who completed the study. There were 200 patients CIMT with <0.78 mm (group 1), and 410 with CIMT >= 0.78 mm (group 2). There was a significant difference at the parameters of age, gender, smoking load, biomass exposure, GOLD groups and degree of airway obstruction (FEV1) between groups 1 and 2. Our results revealed positive correlations between mean CIMT and age, smoking load (pack-years), biomass exposure (years), exacerbation rate (last year), duration of hypertension (years) and cholesterol level; negative correlations between CIMT and FEV1 (P < 0.05). According to logistic regression model, compared with group A, risk of CIMT increase was 2.2-fold in group B, 9.7-fold in group C and 4.4-fold in group D (P < 0.05). Risk of CIMT increase was also related with cholesterol level (P < 0.05). Compared with infrequent exacerbation, it was 2.8-fold in the patients with frequent exacerbation (P < 0.05). The mean survival time was slightly higher in group 1, but not significant (23.9 vs 21.8 months) (P > 0.05). Conclusion This study is the first regarding CIMT with combined GOLD assessment groups. It has revealed important findings supporting the increase in atherosclerosis risk in COPD patients. We recommend Doppler USG of the carotid artery in COPD patients at severe stages.