Nanotechnology involves the study and use of materials under the 100 nm scale, exploiting the different physiochemical properties exhibited by these materials at the nanoscale level. Microorganisms are the best model and role of action for the nano/biotechnological applications. This technology has become increasingly important for the biotechnology and the related sectors. Promising applications have been already employed in the areas of drug delivery systems using bioactive nanoencapsulation, biosensors to detect and quantify pathogens, chemical and organic compounds, alteration of food compositions, and high-performance sensors and film to preserve fruits and vegetables. Moreover, the taste of food and food safety can be improved by new nano-materials from the microbiological sources. The huge benefits from this technology have led to increases in the market investments in nanoscience and nanoproducts in several areas.