Bacterial pathogens in water, food, and the environment are spreading diseases around the world. According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report, waterborne pathogens pose the most significant global health risks to living organisms, including humans and animals. Conventional bacterial detection approaches such as colony counting, microscopic analysis, biochemical analysis, and molecular analysis are expensive, time-consuming, less sensitive, and require a pre-enrichment step. However, the bacteriophage-based detection of pathogenic bacteria is a robust approach that utilizes bacteriophages, which are viruses that specifically target and infect bacteria, for rapid and accurate detection of targets. This review shed light on cutting-edge technologies about the novel structure of phages and the immobilization process on the surface of electrodes to detect targeted bacterial cells. Similarly, the purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of bacteriophage-based biosensors utilized for pathogen detection, as well as their trends, outcomes, and problems. This review article summaries current phage-based pathogen detection strategies for the development of low-cost lab-on-chip (LOC) and point-of-care (POC) devices using electrochemical and optical methods such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).