Lepidopteran larval communities feeding on Quercus pubescens (Willdenow) in Turkey were examined. A total of 190 larval specimens were collected from trees within Ankara Province between the months April and September in both 2013 and 2014 and were further fed under laboratory conditions. Twenty-five taxa belonging to 14 families were identified as follows; seven Geometridae, four Noctuidae, two Tortricidae, two Thyatiridae and one species for each of the Gelechiidae, Arctiidae, Gracillariidae, Lasiocampidae, Lymantriidae, Oecophoridae, Pyralidae, Yponomeutidae, Pterophoridae and Lycaenidae families. Four species are new records for Ankara Province and two species are new for the fauna of Turkey. The Geometridae family was the most represented family feeding on oak trees. Tortrix viridana (L., 1758) (Tortricidae) was the most abundant species with 37 individuals. Feeding activity of both Eupithecia dodoneata Guenee, 1858 and Cosmia trapezina L., 1758 at the larval stage on Q. pubescens is a new finding.