Carcinogenesis of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related (+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) differs from HPV-negative (-) OPSCC. HPV-related immune-escape-mechanism could be responsible for the development and progression of HPV+ tumors and an immunophenotype different from HPV- OPSCC is expected. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of programmed cell death protein 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its prognostic relevance in relation to CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I expression in OPSCC. We quantified PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TC) and macrophages and MHC I expression in association to CD8(+)TILs by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray derived from 171 HPV+/-OPSCC. HPV-status was determined by p16(INK4a)immunohistochemistry/HPV-DNA detection. Presence of CD8(+)TILs, PD-L1 expression on TC, and a more frequent loss of MHC I in HPV+ compared to HPV- OPSCC was detected. A high amount of CD8(+)TILs in the whole cohort and in HPV+ OPSCC and PD-L1 expression on TC in HPV- OPSCC was associated with favorable overall survival. There was a trend for an improved outcome according to PD-L1 expression (macrophages) in HPV+ OPSCC without reaching statistical significance. CD8(+)TILs and PD-L1-expression have prognostic impact in OPSCC and might present useful biomarkers for predicting clinical outcome and personalized therapy concepts.