A new species, Cymbocarpum alinihatii, is described from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. Diagnostic and morphological characteristics that distinguish it from allied species C. anethoides, C. wiedemannii, C. amanum, C. erythraeum, and C. marginatum and an identification key for all Cymbocarpum species are provided. To assess its phylogenetic placement, a maximum parsimony analysis of nrDNA ITS sequences from representative members of tribe Tordylieae was carried out. It shows that the new species nests within a well-supported clade comprising members of Cymbocarpum with strong bootstrap value, but it is distinguished from its most closely related species, C. anethoides and C. wiedemannii. In terms of stem and leaf hairiness, leaf type, and mericarp shape, C. alinihatii differs from C. anethoides by having sparsely to densely scabrid hairy stem and leaf (not glabrous), sometimes having ternate leaves and ovate mericarp shape (not elliptic to oblong). The distribution areas of these two species are also isolated in the high mountains occupying large areas of eastern Turkey. The new species clearly differs from C. wiedemannii by having 4-8 cm (not 20-40 cm) high stem, ca. 1-1.5 cm leaf lamina (not 3 cm), 1-2 cm petiole (not 5 cm), 2-4 mm ultimate leaf segments (not 5 mm), umbel with generally 4-7 (not 10-20) rays, and hairy 2.9-3.2 mm (not 4-5 mm) long mericarps. Based on characters of morphology, and concordant with the molecular phylogenetic results, we recognize the new species as belonging to the genus Cymbocarpum.