Investigation of Formulation and Process Parameters of Wet Media Milling to Develop Etodolac Nanosuspensions

Karakucuk A., Celebi N.

PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH, vol.37, no.6, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 37 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11095-020-02815-x


Purpose Etodolac (ETD) is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which has low aqueous solubility issues. The objective of this study was to develop ETD nanosuspensions to improve its poor aqueous solubility properties while investigating formulation and process parameters of wet media milling method via design of experiment (DoE) approach. Methods The critical formulation parameters (CFP) were selected as ETD amount, stabilizer type and ratio as well as critical process parameters (CPP) which were bead size, milling time and milling speed. The two-factorial-2(3) and The Box-Benkhen Designs were generated to evaluate CFP and CPP, respectively. Particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (ZP) were analyzed as dependent variables. Characterization, physical stability and solubility studies were performed. Results Optimum nanosuspensions stabilized by PVP K30 and Poloxamer 188 showed 188.5 +/- 1.6 and 279.3 +/- 6.1 nm of PS, 0.161 +/- 0.049 and 0.345 +/- 0.007 PDI, 14.8 +/- 0.3 and 16.5 +/- 0.4 mV of ZP values, respectively. The thermal properties of ETD did not change after milling and lyophilization process regarding to DSC analysis. Also, the crystalline state of ETD was preserved. The morphology of particle was smooth and spherical on SEM. The dry-nanosuspensions stayed physically stable for six months at room temperature. The solubility of nanosuspensions increased up to 13.0-fold in comparison with micronized ETD. Conclusions In conclusion, it is found that the poor solubility issue of ETD can be solved by nanosuspension. DoE approach provided benefits such as reducing number of experiments, saving time and improving final product quality by using wet media milling.