Diabetes is a global burden and a significant public health problem all over the world with an increasing incidence. One of the important factors to prevent and treat diabetes is nutritional therapy. Epidemiological and short-term interventional studies emphasise the association between higher fibre intake and improvements in lipid profile as well as fasting and postprandial glycaemic control. Soluble fibres are more effective for management of diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and different cancers when compared with insoluble fibres. The interest in beta (beta)-glucans, soluble fibres has increased due to their multi-functional and bioactive characteristics. They are readiliy available from oat and barley grains. Fermentability and creation of high viscosity solutions in the human intestine constitute the basis of health benefits of beta-glucans. beta-glucans are important compounds for achieving decreased postprandial glucose and insulin responses, and different mechanisms that would explain glucose and insulin reducing effects have been suggested. The effects of beta-glucans on glycaemic control depend on dose, consumption duration, physicochemical features, processing methods, and food form. A significant consideration focuses on consumption of beta-glucans and beta-glucan-included products that could play an important role in management of diabetes by reducing the risk of diabetes-associated complications.