© 2019, South African Medical Association. All rights reserved.Piriformis syndrome is a condition that is often overlooked, and that should be considered when assessing chronic pelvic pain. Patients usually describe deeply localised pain in the gluteal region where the piriformis muscle is located. Patients with piriformis syndrome have long-term chronic pelvic pain. The diagnosis and treatment process of such patients is challenging. It can be diagnosed with an accurate examination and anamnesis, and can be treated using various methods.