Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Evaluation along the Flow Path in the Unconfined Aquifer of the Duzce Plain, North-western Turkey


ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA-ENGLISH EDITION, cilt.84, sa.1, ss.213-222, 2010 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 84 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2010
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.213-222


The Duzce Plain has a multi-aquifer system, which consists of a near surface unconfined aquifer, along with first and second deeper confined aquifers. Hydrochemical evolution and water quality are related to infiltration of the precipitation, recharge from the formations surrounding the plain, flow path of groundwater and the relationship between surface and groundwater. The groundwater in the unconfined aquifer flows towards the Efteni Lake and the Buyuk Melen River. Surface waters are divided into two main hydrochemical facies in the study area: (a) Ca(2+)-HCO(3)(-); and (b) Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-HCO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-). The groundwater has generally three main hydrochemical facies: (a) Ca(2+)-HCO(3)(-); (b) Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-HCO(3)(-); and (c) Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-HCO(3)(-), CI(-). The hydrochemical facies "a" and "b" dominate within shallow depths in recharge areas under rapid flow conditions, while hydrochemical facies "c" characterizes shallow and mixed groundwater, which dominate intermediate or discharge areas (near Efteni Lake and Buyuk Melen River) during low flow conditions and agricultural contamination. Calcium and bicarbonate ions, total hardness and electrical conductivity of total dissolved solids (EC-TDS) values increase along the groundwater flow path; but these parameters remain within the limits specified by the standards set for industrial and agricultural usages.