Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease that has a major impact worldwide. The currently-available drugs mainly focus on relieving the symptoms of COPD patients. However, in the latter stages of the disease, the airways become largely obstructed and lung parenchyma becomes destructed due to underlying inflammation. The inappropriate repair of lung tissue after injury may contribute to the development of disease. Novel regenerative therapeutic approaches have been investigated with the aim of repairing or replacing the injured functional structures of the respiratory system. Endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells are available for the treatment of many diseases. Stem cell therapy is newly introduced to the field of COPD. Currently the research is in its infancy; however, the field is profoundly growing. Previous studies suggest that cell-based therapies and novel bioengineering approaches may be potential therapeutic strategies for lung repair and remodelling. In this paper, we review the current evidence of stem cell therapy in COPD.