The military cartridge includes four elements; the case, the capsule, the ammunition and the powder. Defects may occur in the case during manufacturing. Defective cartridges must be detected and separated. Defects could occur in the parts of the mouth, the cylindrical surface and the primer of the case. This article proposes algorithms that involve the inspection of the defects of the primer parts of the cases with image processing techniques. The proposed algorithms were implemented on real images, and the obtained results showed that the fire hole and the tab defects occurred on the primer part of the case, and these are detected with high accuracy.