Cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) is defined as the abrupt and unexpected cessation of spontaneous and effective ventilation and circulation. The main goal of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for the victims of cardiac pulmonary arrest (CPA) is not only restoration of cardiopulmonary function but also return to their previous life. CPR is farther categorized as basic life support (BLS), advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) and postresuscitation support. The purpose of BLS is to maintain adequate ventilation and circulation until advanced cardiac life support can be provided and spontaneous cardiopulmonary function is restored. BLS consists of provision of a patent upper airway, ventilation and circulation of blood by closed chest cardiac compressions. In this article the key evidence-based aspects of resuscitation and basic life support are presented in light of the recent publication of revised guidelines from the European Resuscitation Council and Working Group of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR).